Reservoir Heads

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Reservoir Heads is how we print (also known as Direct Ink Writing or Robocasting) with fluid or emulsified (non-filament-based) materials which are deposited at, above, or below room temperature, with or without UV Crosslinking.

Nordson and ViscoTec Heads

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Some customers have requested that we configure our equipment in such a way that heads from other companies like the Nordson Ultimus V heads or one of the Viscotec Vipro heads.

Yes, Hyrel equipment can accommodate these and other print heads with just a little custom code and a special tool holder. Please contact us if you have any questions at all.

Click image for a larger image.

Materials for Reservoir Heads

Reservoir Heads heads are for printing as follows:

  • With pastes, gels, emulsifiables or waxes.
  • At room or elevated temperatures.
  • With or without UV Crosslining.
  • With Hyrel Nozzles (1.5mm, 2mm) or Luer Tips.

The following materials can be printed from Cold Flow heads. Note that more viscous materials may not be suitable for plastic syringes or smaller luer tips.

The following materials can be printed from Warm Flow heads. Note that more viscous materials may not be suitable for plastic syringes or smaller luer tips, or may print more easily at higher temperatures.

Reservoir Heads

Ambient or sub-ambient deposition is available through the following Reservoir-based heads:

Heated deposition is available through the following Reservoir-based heads:

EMO-Type Head Comparison
Temperature > 20°C < Ambient Ambient Up to 50°C Up to 90°C Up to 180°C Up to 270°C
Crosslinking
Optional
RSD-30 EMO-25
SDS-5, -10,
SDS-30, -60
SMH-2
HSD-30 HSD-10
VOL-25
KRA-15
KR2-15
TAM-15

Note, RSD-30 will take you about 20C below ambient.

So, what do these goofy designations actually stand for?

EMO: Emulsifiables at Room Temperature - Low to Medium Viscosity
COD: Emulsifiables T Room Temperature with Crosslink On Demand - Low to Medium Viscosity
VOL: Volcano: Heated (up to 100°C) Emulsifiables - Low to Medium Viscosity
KR2: Krakatoa v2: a more robust KRA head with a double gasketed plunger hotter, more viscous Emulsifiables - Very High Viscosity
TAM: Tambora: Heated (up to 270°C) Emulsifiables - High Viscosity
SDS: Syringe Dispensing System (uses disposable plastic syringes at room temperature) - Low Viscosity
HSD: Heated (formerly Volcanic) Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
RSD: Refrigerated Syringe Dispensing System - Low to Medium Viscosity
DSD: Dual Syringe Dispenser, dispensing two-part mixtures at a fixed ratio - Low to Medium Viscosity
SMH: Static Mixing Head, blending your ratio of material through a baffled nozzle - Low to Medium Viscosity

Research Papers Citing Hyrel Reservoir Heads

These are now listed by year here.

Firmware Versions for Reservoir Heads

Firmware information is listed on our Firmware page.

Reservoirs for Reservoir Heads

We've used different reservoirs over the years. Here are the details.

Metal Reservoirs

Metal Reservoirs
Tube Material Plunger
O-Rings
Nominal
Volume
ID
mm
OD
mm
Default
Heads
Also
Compatible
Notes
Aluminum 1 25 cc 16.9 mm 20.2 mm EMO, VOL EMO-XT Modified "Makin"
Stainless 1 15 cc 17.7 mm 20 mm KRA* none Modified "Makin"
Stainless 1 25 cc 17.7 mm 20 mm none EMO, VOL, EMO-XT Modified "Makin"
Stainless 2 15 cc 18 mm 20 mm KR2, TAM, EMO-XT none Custom

Plastic Reservoirs

Plastic Reservoirs
Default
Heads
Tube Material Manufacturer Part
Number
Nominal
Volume
Notes Hyrel Part Quantity
SDS-1 Polypropylene MHC Easy-Touch 802010 1 cc none AN.SYR-01/100-MHC 100
SDS-5 Polypropylene BD 309646 5 cc none AN.SYR-05/125-BD 125
SDS-10 Polypropylene BD 309604 10 cc none AN.SYR-10/100-BD 100
SDS-30
SDS-30XT
Polypropylene BD 302832 30 cc none AN.SYR-30/54-BD 54
SDS-60
SDS-60XT
Polypropylene BD 309653 60 cc none AN.SYR-60/40-BD 40
SDS-150XT Polypropylene - - 150 cc none AN.SYR-150/10 10
HSD-10 Polyamide Ardes* 10 cc *modified AN.SYR-10-Ardes 1

Settings for Reservoir Heads

All printers and heads shipping after 1 Jan 2020 have shipped with some release of version 4, and these values are shown below.

Older settings are listed here.

Some settings for the EMO-Type heads (like temperature, prime/unprime values) will vary, depending on what material you are printing with. Nozzle diameter should accurately reflect what nozzle you have loaded (1.6mm is default) AND what path width you sliced for. Temperature commands will be ignored by heads with no temperature control. Having said that, below are our default shipping settings:

METAL Reservoir Heads

Default Settings for Reservoir Heads with METAL Reservoirs
Settings EMO, VOL
27:1 Ratio
VOL
51:1 Ratio
EMO-XT, KR2, TAM
100:1
KR2-ST
Super Torque
EMO-300XT
eXtra Torque
Material
Type Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom
Color (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Nozzle 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600
Layer (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Temp Info
Print Temp 0 0, 35 35 (varies) 0
Power Factor 100 100 100 100 100
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0
Maximum 0 90 0 / 180 / 270 0 0
Overrides
Pulses / µL 271.9 517 1297  ?  ?
Note: Values above in BOLD have been validated through multiple sample testing, July 2020.
Multiplier 1 1 1  ?  ?
Prime
Steps 6000 1000 6000  ?  ?
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000  ?  ?
Dwell Time (ms) 600 100 600  ?
Unprime
Steps 6000 1000 6000  ?  ?
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000  ?  ?
Dwell Time -600 -100 -600  ?  ?
Offsets
X 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Y 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Z 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Head Info
Model EMO-25 VOL-25 KR2-15 or TAM-15 (varies) EMO-300XT
PCB Type 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J
RTD Type 1k_PRTD 1k_PRTD 1k_PRTD 1k_PRTD 1k_PRTD
Plot Settings (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Motor Settings
Step Mode 16th 16th 16th 16th  ?
Motor Current Normal Normal Normal Normal  ?
Max Jog Rate 5,000 10,000 15,000  ?  ?
Rot Speed 1,500 1,500 10,000  ?  ?
Settings EMO, VOL
27:1 Ratio
VOL
51:1 Ratio
EMO-XT, KR2, TAM
100:1
KR2-ST
Super Torque
EMO-300XT
eXtra Torque

PLASTIC Reservoir Heads: Table 1

Default Settings for Reservoir Heads with PLASTIC Reservoirs - Table 1: Standard Torque, Single Reservoir
Settings SDS 1 ET SDS 5 SDS 10 SDS/HSD/RSD 30 SDS 60
Material
Type Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom
Color (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Nozzle 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600
Layer (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Temp Info
Print Temp 0 0 0 0 0
Power Factor 100 100 100 100 100
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0
Maximum 0 0 0 0 / 75 / -10 0
Overrides
Pulses / µL 270 87.3 58.7 26.8 17.4
Note: Values above in BOLD have been validated through multiple sample testing, July 2020 or Oct 2021.
Multiplier 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Prime
Steps 3000 1500 3000 2250 1500
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time (ms) 300 150 300 225 150
Unprime
Steps 3000 1500 3000 2250 1500
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time -300 -150 -300 -300 -300
Offsets
Clone Head Off Off Off Off Off
X 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Y 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Z 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Head Info
Model SDS SDS-5 SDS-10 SDS-30 / HSD-30 / RSD-30 SDS-60
PCB Type 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J
RTD Type None None None None / 1k_PRTD / 1k_PRTD None
Plot Settings (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Motor Settings
Step Mode 16th 16th 16th 16th 16th
Motor Current Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
Max Jog Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Rot Speed 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500
Settings SDS 1 ET SDS 5 SDS 10 SDS/HSD/RSD 30 SDS 60

PLASTIC Reservoir Heads: Table 2

Default Settings for Reservoir Heads with PLASTIC Reservoirs - Table 2: Higher Torque and Dual Reservoir
Settings HSD-10-Ardes SDS-30-XT SDS-60-XT SDS-150-XT DSD-50
Material
Type Custom Custom Custom Custom Custom
Color (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Nozzle 1.600 1.600 1.600 1.600 4.00
Layer (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Temp Info
Print Temp 35 0 0 0 0
Power Factor 100 100 100 100 100
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0
Maximum 75 0 0 0 0
Overrides
Pulses / µL 1800 86 29.1 12.8 20
Note: Values above in BOLD have been validated through multiple sample testing, July 2020.
Multiplier 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
Prime
Steps 9000 1125 1500 1500 1
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time (ms) 900 115 150 150 1
Unprime
Steps 9000 1125 1500 1500 1
Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Dwell Time -900 -300 -300 -300 -100
Offsets
X 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Y 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Z 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000 0,000
Head Info
Model (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies) (varies)
PCB Type 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J 4988/160J
RTD Type 1k_PLAT_RTD None None None None
Plot Settings (any) (any) (any) (any) (any)
Motor Settings
Step Mode 16th 16th 16th 16th 16th
Motor Current Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
Max Jog Rate 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000
Rot Speed 7,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500
Settings HSD-10-Ardes SDS-30-XT SDS-60-XT SDS-150-XT DSD-50